Topography - Mt. Apo Natural Park has a typical volcanic terrain. Its features exhibited within the park area are cinder cones ( Mt. Talomo , Apo complex), volcanic plateaus (Todaya Plateau now known as Kapatagan) and breached craters.
Geology - Mt. Apo or the Apo volcanic complex forms part of the Central Mindanao Cordillera and constitute the southern end of a north to south trending belt of Pliocene Quaternary volcanoes. Three (3) quaternary strata-volcanoes coalesce in the area; these are the Mts. Sibulan, Talomo, and Apo . The Pliocene Quaternary is volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks chiefly agglomerate and tuff that underlie the broad slopes of non-active volcanic cones. The non-active volcanic cones are composed of generally pyroexene andesite and desite and or andesite plug. Mt. Apo is rich with minerals such as sulfur (which is considered by the IP`s or Lumads as having medicinal values), copper, and coal. Mt. Apo has many waterfalls and mountain lakes; the most famous of which are Lake Agco and Lake Venado at the foot of Mt. Apo . The most scenic waterfalls are the Todaya falls in Sibulan, Sta. Cruz, and the Mabbu falls and Tagibaka falls at Bongolanon, Magpet, Cotabato. A number of hot springs also abound in the park and are potential sites for eco-tourism development projects. Examples are the Batasan Hotspring at Makilala, Cotabato province, Palaca Hotspring at Sibulan, Mainit Hot Spring in Sta. Cruz, Davao del Sur, the Lake Agco at Ilomavis, Kidapawan City , Cotabato province and the Mainit and Marauer hot springs in Kapatagan, Davao del Sur.
Climate - Mt. Apo generally enjoys tropical rainy climate. It falls under the Type IV climate under the modified corona's classification wherein rainfall is relatively distributed throughout the year. Mean monthly temperature ranges from a low 26.4 o C during January to 27.9 o C during April. Monthly relative humidity ranges from 78% during March and April and 82% during June and July.
Hydrology - Mt. Apo is the watershed of over 19 river systems located in Davao City , Davao del Sur, Bukidnon and Cotabato.The northern and western areas of the park are part of the catchment basin of the Mindanao River . This river system drains through the Liguasan Marsh and Cotabato Valley in the Moro Gulf . Rivers and streams in Mt. Apo that belong to this system are the Kabacan, Marbel, Matingao, Mateo and Saguing rivers. The southern sector of Mt. Apo is a part of the Padada watershed. Major tributaries of the Padada River on the southern side of Mt. Apo include the Bulatukan, Miral and Marber rivers. On the eastern side of the Park are the following river networks: (1) the Balutakay, (2) Digos, (3) Tagulaya-Sibulan, Lipadas, Talomo, (4) Matina, and (5) the headwater tributaries of the Davao river. They all drain to Davao Gulf . Drainage pattern within the park varies from radial around Mt. Talomo and Mt. Sibulan to sub-parallel in other areas. Around Mt. Talomo and Mt. Sibulan river channels and gullies are relatively deeper compared to other areas on the western side.
Soils - The soil in the park is of clay-loam fertile volcanic soil and Miral type classification (Wildfood Plants in the Protected Areas of the Philippines ). Pedological data within Mt. Apo Natural Park are limited to the result of a study done by the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) in 1991. Based on the study, the soil types identified in the Cotabato area belong to the Kidapawan soil series and unnamed soil series of silt loam to clay loam. The Kidapawan series covers slopes of 3% to 8% while the unnamed soil series covers slopes of 40% to 80%. The Kidapawan series are characterized with moderate water erosion hazard while the unnamed series is vulnerable to very high water-induced erosion . In forested areas, soils commonly have high organic matter content because of the abundance of vegetation litter. These areas are mostly covered with dense and mixed species of plants primarily due to high level of humus. However in steep and dissected uplands, with the absence of vegetative cover, the surface layer is unstable and subject to active erosion. Soils in these areas are of medium texture (silt loam) and considered highly prone to erosion because the size of the silt particles is optimum for detachment and transportation by water moving over the soil surface. This is the case in the southern portions of Mt. Apo particularly in Bansalan and Digos where more than seventy percent of the area has been deforested. Topsoils are now very shallow and hold little water.